The Jutland Chronicle gives evidence that Saxo was born in Sjælland (Anglicized as Zealand). It is unlikely he was born before 1150 and it is supposed that his death could have occurred around 1220. His name Saxo was a common name in medieval Denmark. The name Grammaticus (“the learned”) was first given to him in the Jutland Chronicle and the Sjælland Chronicle makes reference to Saxo cognomine Longus (“the tall”).

He lived in a period of warfare and Danish expansion, led by Archbishop Absalon and the Valdemars. The Danes were also being threatened by the Wends who were making raids across the border and by sea.[1] Valdemar I had also just won a civil war and later Valdemar II led an expedition across the Elbe to invade Holstein.[2]

Sven Aggesen, a Danish nobleman and author of a slightly earlier history of Denmark than Saxo’s, describes his contemporary, Saxo, as his contubernalis meaning tent-comrade. This gives evidence that Saxo and Sven might have soldiered in the Hird or royal guard since Sven used the word contubernium in reference to them. There is also a Saxo to be found on a list of clergy at Lund, where there was a Sven recorded as Archdeacon. Likewise there is Dean Saxo who died at Roskilde in 1190, however the date does not match what is known about Saxo.

Both arguments, for a secular or religious Saxo, would confirm that he was well educated, as clergy he would have received training in Latin and sons of great men were often sent to Paris.[3] Saxo comes from a warrior family and writes that he is himself committed to being a soldier. He tells us that he follows “the ancient right of hereditary service,” and that his father and grandfather “were recognized frequenters of your renowned sire’s (Valdemar I) war camp.”[4] Saxo’s education and ability supports the idea that he was educated outside of Denmark. Some suggest the title “Grammaticus” refers not to his education but rather the his elaborate Latin style.[5] We know from his writing that he was in the retinue and received the patronage of Absalon, Archbishop of Lund, who was the foremost advisor to King Valdemar I. In his will Absalon forgives his clerk Saxo a small debt of two and a half marks of silver and tells him to return two borrowed books to the monastery of Sorø.[6] The legacy of Saxo Grammaticus is the sixteen book heroic history of the Danes called Gesta Danorum.

Saxo, etching by the Danish-Norwegian illustrator Louis Moe (1857-1945)

Saxo Grammaticus (c. 1150-1220) also known as Saxo cognomine Longus was a Danish historian, thought to have been a secular clerk or secretary to Absalon, Archbishop of Lund, foremost advisor to Valdemar I of Denmark. He is the author of the first full history of Denmark.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saxo_Grammaticus

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Half-length portait of a fortyish man wearing distinctive Windsor (circular-lens) glasses with black Zylo-covered frames, short and slicked-down brown hair, a small mustache, light tan jacket, and brown tie. His mouth is turned down in a slightly truculent expression

James Joyce in Paris, 1924
Portrait by Patrick Tuohy

James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish writer and poet, widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the 20th century. Along with Marcel Proust, Virginia Woolf, and William Faulkner, Joyce is a key figure in the development of the modernist novel. He is best known for his landmark novel Ulysses (1922). Other major works are the short-story collection Dubliners (1914), and the novels A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916) and Finnegans Wake (1939).

Although most of his adult life was spent outside the country, Joyce’s Irish experiences are essential to his writings and provide all of the settings for his fiction and much of their subject matter. In particular, his rocky early relationship with the Irish Catholic Church is reflected by a similar conflict in his character Stephen Dedalus, who appears in two of his novels. His fictional universe is firmly rooted in Dublin and reflects his family life and the events and friends (and enemies) from his school and college days; Ulysses is set with precision in the real streets and alleyways of the city. As the result of the combination of this attention to one place, and his lengthy travels throughout Europe, notably in Paris, Joyce paradoxically became both one of the most cosmopolitan yet most regionally focused of all the English language writers of his time.[1]  

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Joyce

Alexander III of Macedon (356–323 BC), popularly known as Alexander the Great (Greek: Μέγας Ἀλέξανδρος, Mégas Aléxandros), was a Greeki[›] king (basileus) of Macedon who created one of the largest empires in ancient history. Born in Pella in 356 BC, Alexander received a classical Greek education under the tutorship of famed philosopher Aristotle, succeeded his father Philip II of Macedon to the throne in 336 BC after the King was assassinated, and died thirteen years later at the age of 32. Although both Alexander’s reign and empire were short-lived, the cultural impact of his conquests lasted for centuries. Alexander is one of the most famous figures of antiquity, and is remembered for his tactical ability, his conquests, and for spreading Greek civilization into the East.

Philip had brought most of the city-states of mainland Greece under Macedonian hegemony, using both military and diplomatic means. Upon his death, Alexander inherited a strong kingdom and an experienced army. He succeeded in being awarded the generalship of Greece and with his authority firmly established, launched the military plans for expansion left by his father. He invaded Persian-ruled Asia Minor, and began a series of campaigns lasting ten years. Alexander repeatedly defeated the Persians in battle, marched through Syria, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, and Bactria and in the process he overthrew the Persian king Darius III and conquered the entirety of the Persian Empire.ii[›] Following his desire to reach the “ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea”, he invaded India, but was eventually forced to turn back by the near-mutiny of his troops, who had tired of war.

Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BC, before having the chance to realize a series of planned campaigns, beginning with an invasion of Arabia. In the years following Alexander’s death, his empire was torn apart in a series of civil wars, which resulted in the formation of a number of states ruled by Macedonian aristocracy (the Diadochi). Remarkable though his conquests were, Alexander’s lasting legacy was not his reign, but the cultural diffusion engendered by his conquests. The import of Greek colonists and culture to the East, initiated by Alexander, resulted in a new Hellenistic culture, aspects of which were still evident in the traditions of the Byzantine Empire up until the mid-15th century. Alexander himself became legendary, as a classical hero in the mould of Achilles, and features prominently in the history and myth of Greek and non-Greek cultures. He became the measure against which generals, even to this day, compare themselves, and his tactical exploits are still taught in military academies throughout the world.iii[›]   

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_the_Great

Plato (pronounced /ˈpleɪtoʊ/) (Greek: Πλάτων, Plátōn, “broad”)[2] (428/427 BC[a] – 348/347 BC), was a Classical Greek philosopher, mathematician, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. Along with his mentor, Socrates, and his student, Aristotle, Plato helped to lay the foundations of natural philosophy, science, and Western philosophy.[3] Plato was originally a student of Socrates, and was as much influenced by his thinking as by what he saw as his teacher’s unjust death.

Plato’s sophistication as a writer is evident in his Socratic dialogues; thirty-five dialogues and thirteen letters have been ascribed to him. Plato’s writings have been published in several fashions; this has led to several conventions regarding the naming and referencing of Plato’s texts.

Although there is little question that Plato lectured at the Academy that he founded, the pedagogical function of his dialogues, if any, is not known with certainty. The dialogues since Plato’s time have been used to teach a range of subjects, including philosophy, logic, rhetoric, mathematics, and other subjects about which he wrote.

Western Philosophy
Ancient philosophy

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plato#Biography

Thomas Alva Edison
Thomas Edison.jpg

 

 Thomas Edison was born in Milan, Ohio, and grew up in Port Huron, Michigan. He was the seventh and last child of Samuel “The Iron Shovel” Edison, Jr. (1804–1896) (born in Marshalltown, Nova Scotia, Canada) and Nancy Matthews Elliott (1810–1871). He considered himself to be of Dutch ancestry.[1] In school, the young Edison’s mind often wandered, and his teacher, the Reverend Engle, was overheard calling him “addled“. This ended Edison’s three months of official schooling. Edison recalled later, “My mother was the making of me. She was so true, so sure of me; and I felt I had something to live for, someone I must not disappoint.” His mother homeschooled him.[2] Much of his education came from reading R.G. Parker’s School of Natural Philosophy and The Cooper Union. Edison developed hearing problems at an early age. The cause of his deafness has been attributed to a bout of scarlet fever during childhood and recurring untreated middle ear infections. Around the middle of his career Edison attributed the hearing impairment to being struck on the ears by a train conductor when his chemical laboratory in a boxcar caught fire and he was thrown off the train in Smiths Creek, Michigan, along with his apparatus and chemicals. In his later years he modified the story to say the injury occurred when the conductor, in helping him onto a moving train, lifted him by the ears.[3][4] Edison’s family was forced to move to Port Huron, Michigan, when the railroad bypassed Milan in 1854,[5] but his life there was bittersweet. He sold candy and newspapers on trains running from Port Huron to Detroit, and he sold vegetables to supplement his income. This began Edison’s long streak of entrepreneurial ventures as he discovered his talents as a businessman. These talents eventually led him to found 14 companies, including General Electric, which is still in existence and is one of the largest publicly traded companies in the world 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Edison

 

Hartmann was born, of German descent, in Riga, now Latvia and then capital of the Russian province of Livonia. He studied Medicine at the University of Tartu (then Jurjev), then Philosophy in St. Petersburg and, most importantly, at the University of Marburg in Germany, where he took his Ph.D. and Habilitation. He was professor of philosophy in Marburg (1922–25), Cologne (1925–31), Berlin (1931–45) and Göttingen (1945–50), where he died.

Originally a Marburg Neo-Kantian, studying under Hermann Cohen and Paul Natorp, Hartmann developed his own philosophy which has been variously described as a variety of existentialism or critical realism. Hartmann suffered from the comparison with his popular Marburg successor Martin Heidegger, whose vision of ontology was considerably broader than Hartmann’s.

Among Hartmann’s many students were Boris Pasternak, Hans-Georg Gadamer and Delfim Santos. He is the modern discoverer of emergence — originally called by him categorial novum. His encyclopedic work is basically forgotten today, although famous during his lifetime. His early work in the philosophy of biology has been cited in modern discussions of genomics and cloning, and his views on consciousness and free will are currently in vogue among contributors to the Journal of Consciousness Studies 

http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_L._Brooks  

James L. Brooks
A video camera is being pointed at a bearded man who is wearing glasses. Some other people stand in the background.
James L. Brooks in July 2007 at the Springfield, Vermont premiere of The Simpsons Movie

 

James Lawrence Brooks (born May 9, 1940) is an American director, producer and screenwriter. Growing up in North Bergen, New Jersey, Brooks endured a fractured family life and passed the time by reading and writing. After dropping out of New York University he got a job as an usher at CBS, going on to write for the CBS News broadcasts. He moved to Los Angeles in 1965 to work on David L. Wolper‘s documentaries. After being laid off he met producer Allan Burns who secured him a job as a writer on the series My Mother the Car.

Brooks wrote for several shows before being hired as a story editor on My Friend Tony and later creating the series Room 222. Grant Tinker hired Brooks and Burns at MTM Productions to create The Mary Tyler Moore Show in 1970. The show, one of the first to feature an independent working woman as its lead character, was critically acclaimed and won Brooks several Primetime Emmy Awards. Brooks and Burns then created two successful spin-offs from Mary Tyler Moore in the shape of Rhoda (a comedy) and Lou Grant (a drama). Brooks left MTM Productions in 1978 to co-create the sitcom Taxi which, despite winning multiple Emmys, suffered from low ratings and was canceled twice.

He moved into feature film work when he wrote and co-produced the 1979 film Starting Over. His next project was the critically acclaimed film Terms of Endearment, which he produced, directed and wrote, winning an Academy Award for all three positions. Basing his next film, Broadcast News, on his journalistic experiences the film earned him a further two Academy Award nominations. Although his 1994 work I’ll Do Anything was hampered by negative press attention due to the cutting of all of its recorded musical numbers, As Good as It Gets (co-written with Mark Andrus) earned further praise. It was seven years until his next film, which came in the shape of 2004’s Spanglish. Brooks also produced and mentored Cameron Crowe on Say Anything… (1989) and Wes Anderson and Owen Wilson on Bottle Rocket (1996).

Although he did not intend to do so, Brooks returned to television in 1987 as the producer of The Tracey Ullman Show. He hired cartoonist Matt Groening to create a series of shorts for the show, which eventually led to The Simpsons in 1989. The Simpsons won numerous awards and is still running after 20 years. Brooks also co-produced and co-wrote the 2007 film adaptation of the show, The Simpsons Movie. In total, Brooks has received 47 Emmy nominations, winning 20 of them.[1]