File:Gael garcia bernal.jpg

Gael García Bernal (Spanish pronunciation: [ɡaˈel ɡaɾˈsi.a beɾˈnal]; born November 30, 1978) is a MGarcía Bernal was born in Guadalajara, Jalisco, the son of Patricia Bernal, an actress and former model, and José Angel García, an actor and director.[1] His stepfather is Sergio Yazbek, who his mother married when García Bernal was young.[2] He started acting at just a year old and spent most of his teen years starring in telenovelas. Gael studied at the International Baccalaureate, with chemistry being unquestionably his favorite subject. When he was fourteen, he taught indigenous peoples in Mexico to read, often working with the Huichol Indians.[3] In his later teens he took part in peaceful demonstrations during the Chiapas uprising of 1994exican actor and director.

García Bernal was becoming a soap opera heartthrob, but at age 19, he left Mexico’s television world to study acting at the Central School of Speech and Drama in London, becoming the first person from Mexico to be accepted in the programme. In the brief period beforehand, he had begun to study philosophy at UNAM, Mexico’s national university, before a strike closed the college and he then left for London. Describing his time in London as ‘life forming’, he only considered acting as merely an ‘odd job profession’ until the Mexican director Alejandro González Iñárritu tracked him down and offered him a part in Amores Perros. Subsequently, García Bernal starred in some of Mexico’s most celebrated recent films, including 2001’s Y tu mamá también, and El crimen del Padre Amaro (2002). He has also done some theatre work, including a 2005 production of Bodas de Sangre, by Federico García Lorca, in the Almeida Theatre in London. His debut as a working-class dreamer in the Oscar-nominated Amores Perros, however, was what first grabbed Hollywood‘s attention.

García Bernal also portrayed Argentine revolutionary Che Guevara twice, first in the 2002 TV miniseries Fidel and then, better known, in 2004’s The Motorcycle Diaries, an adaptation of a journal a 23-year-old Guevara wrote about his travels across South America. García Bernal worked for acclaimed directors including Pedro Almodóvar, Walter Salles, Alfonso Cuarón, Alejandro González Iñárritu and Michel Gondry, among others. He recently took on roles in English language films, including the Gondry-directed The Science of Sleep, the Alejandro González Iñárritu-directed Babel, and The King, for which he earned rave reviews.[5] He has been nominated for a BAFTA in 2005 for Best Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role for The Motorcycle Diaries and, in 2006, was nominated for the Orange Rising Star award which acknowledges new talents in the acting industry.

García Bernal also directed his first feature film, Déficit, which was released in 2007.[6][7] García Bernal is also featured on the 2007 Devendra Banhart album Smokey Rolls Down Thunder Canyon, contributing vocals on the first track entitled “Cristobal.” Bernal was cast for the 2008 film Blindness, an adaptation of the 1995 novel of the same name by José Saramago about a society suffering an epidemic of blindness. Like in the novel, the characters have only descriptions, no names or histories; while director Fernando Meirelles said some actors were intimidated by the concept of playing such characters, “With Gael, he said, ‘I never think about the past. I just think what my character wants.'”[8]

García Bernal stars in Rudo y Cursi with Diego Luna, directed by Carlos Cuarón. They will also all be at the screening at 2009’s Edinburgh Film Festival.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gael_Garc%C3%ADa_Bernal

 

 

 

Édgar Ramírez (born March 25, 1977) is a Venezuelan actor best known for his role as Paz, a CIA assassin in the movie The Bourne Ultimatum. He is set to portray Colombian drug lord Pablo Escobar in Joe Carnahan‘s upcoming film Killing Pablo.

Born Edgar Ramírez Arellano in San Cristóbal, Táchira; Venezuela to Soday Arellano (an Attorney) and Filiberto Ramírez (A Military). He has a sister named Nataly and a nephew by the name of Enrique Alberto.[3] Most of his childhood was spent traveling, since his dad was a military and had to travel and live in different countries. Thanks to this experience Ramirez speaks five languages fluently, which include: Spanish, German, English, French and Italian.

Ramirez attended Universidad Católica Andrés Bello, for college in Venezuela and graduated in 1999, with a degree in mass communication, minoring in political communications, since he intended to become a diplomat in international relations. While in college he worked as a journalist, reporting on politics. Later, he became executive director of “Ngo Dale al Voto,” a Venezuelan organization similar to Rock the Vote. He and his team created campaigns for radio, television and movie theaters. However, he was always attracted to the performing arts and while in college was involved with the arts as a hobby. Ramirez was in charge of international promotions of a short film he did alongside with friends.[4] Screenwriter Alejandro González Iñárritu – then a professor in Mexico – , was invited to the school’s short film festival as part of the jury, that’s when he saw Ramirez work in the short film and proposed for Ramirez to star in the film Amores Perros. Ramirez passed it up, since he was in the middle of his thesis and had to attend Harvard National Model UN that year as a delegate from his school. Three years later Iñárritu returned to Venezuela from the Cannes Film festival in France, where the film had won the Prize of the Critic’s Week. The film went on to also be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. At that moment Ramirez made his decision to try out and pursue his acting interests.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89dgar_Ram%C3%ADrez

 

File:GuillermoArriaga.jpg

 

Guillermo Arriaga Jordán (Spanish pronunciation: [ɡiˈʎermo aˈrjaɣa]) (born 13 March 1958) is a Mexican author, screenwriter, director and producer. He received the 2005 Cannes Film Festival Best Screenplay Award for The Three Burials of Melquiades Estrada.

Arriaga was born in Mexico City and spent his childhood in one of the most violent sectors of the metropolis. At the age of 13, he lost the sense of smell after a brutal street fight that would later serve as inspiration for some of his work.

Before engaging in his writing career, Arriaga tried out a variety of jobs and professions, amongst which were that of boxer, basketball player and professional soccer player.

He completed a B.A. in Communications and a M.A. in Psychology at the Ibero-American University, where he taught several courses in media studies before joining the ITESM. Self-defined as “a hunter who works as a writer,” he authored Amores Perros, received a BAFTA Best Screenplay nomination for 21 Grams and received the 2005 Cannes Best Screenplay Award for The Three Burials of Melquiades Estrada. Arriaga also had an acting cameo in the latter film as a bear hunter.

While teaching at the Universidad Iberoamericana Guillermo Arriaga met future film director Alejandro González Iñárritu and decided to make a feature length, multiplot film set in Mexico City. The result was Amores Perros (1999), one of the most heavily praised films in the recent history of Mexican cinema. The film, with its gritty look at the underbelly of Mexican life received an Oscar nomination for “Best Foreign Film” as well as a BAFTA Film Award for “Best Film not in the English Language,” the “Critics Week Grand Prize” and “Young Critics Award” at the 2000 Cannes Film Festival as well as many other awards from festivals and societies around the world.

The success of Amores Perros earned Arriaga and Iñárritu an invitation to the U.S. to work on the Universal/Focus feature film 21 Grams, starring Benicio del Toro, Naomi Watts and Sean Penn. Watts and del Toro received Academy Award nominations for their performances.

Iñárritu and Arriaga collaborated on a third movie, Babel, to form a trilogy with his first two pictures focusing on the theme of death. However, friction between writer and director led to Iñarritu banning Arriaga from attending the 2006 Cannes screening of Babel. Nevertheless, Inarritu and Arriaga both received Academy Award nominations for their work.

On January 19, 2007 the film adaptation of his book El Búfalo de la Noche directed by Jorge Hernandez Aldana premiered at the Sundance film festival. It features an original score by Omar Rodriguez-Lopez of The Mars Volta. The main title sequence for this movie was created by Canadian studio Mucho Motion and One Size from the Netherlands.

An award-winning screenwriter, Arriaga has repeatedly stated that he hates being called a “screenwriter” and that he hates screenplays being referred to as such. He claims that he and all other screenwriters are writers, and the title of screenwriter diminishes the work of screenwriters. He now continuously advocates for screenwriters being referred to as “writers” and screenplays being referred to as “Works of Film”. However, in a TV interview at KUSI in San Diego on September 10, 2009, he clarified that he did not really mind the English word “screenwriter.” It was the word in Spanish which he did not like. The Spanish word most often associated with screenwriters,”guionista”, is also used to describe people who write tour guidebooks. He does not think of himself as a guidebook author.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guillermo_Arriaga

 

 

 

 

Adriana Barraza (born March 5, 1956)[1] is a Mexican film and television actress and director. She has also been nominated for a Golden Globe, two Screen Actors Guild Awards, a Broadcast Film Critics Association and an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress. She is best known as a veteran actress of Televisa telenovelas. Barraza is the third Mexican actress to be nominated for an Academy Award, in a year when ten Mexicans were nominated at the 79th Academy Awards.

Barraza was born in Toluca, Estado de Mexico in Central Mexico, and has lived since 1974 with her Argentine husband in Chihuahua. While her spouse taught on the philosophy faculty of the Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, she studied acting at the fine arts school, worked and raised her daughter.

In 1985, Barraza moved to Mexico City, to work as a theater director. Since 1985, Barraza has guest starred and directed the Mexican television show Mujer, Casos de la Vida Real, alongside host Silvia Pinal. She has also been a part of the telenovela ensembles of Bajo un Mismo Rostro playing Elvira, La Paloma as Madre Clara and Imperio de Cristal as Flora. In 1997 she took on the role of Nurse Clara Dominguez in Alguna Vez Tendremos Alas.

Her two most recognizable films are Amores Perros and Babel; the latter garnered her nominations for an Academy Award, a Golden Globe Award, a Broadcast Film Critics Association Award, a Screen Actors Guild Award, an Online Film Critics Award, and a Chicago Film Critics Circle Award for Best Performance by an Actress in a Supporting Role in a Motion Picture. She won in this category at the San Francisco Film Critics Circle Awards. This role has earned her wide acclaim and she was nominated for Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress, losing to Jennifer Hudson for her performance in Dreamgirls.

Barraza directed Locura de Amor (in which she also starred), Nunca Te Olvidare and El Manantial. She is also a professional acting coach and has worked with actors for a number of movies and television shows, including the American film Spanglish.

She currently works for Telemundo as an acting instructor. In 2007, Barraza was invited to join the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adriana_Barraza

Rumble Fish is a 1983 film directed, produced and co-written by Francis Ford Coppola. It is based on the novel Rumble Fish by S.E. Hinton, who also co-wrote the screenplay. The film centers on the relationship between the Motorcycle Boy (Mickey Rourke), a revered former gang leader, and his younger brother, Rusty James (Matt Dillon), who can’t live up to his brother’s great reputation, nor can his brother live it down.

Coppola wrote the screenplay for the film with Hinton on his days off from shooting The Outsiders. He made the films back-to-back, retaining much of the same cast and crew. The film is notable for its avant-garde style, shot on stark high-contrast black-and-white film, using the spherical cinematographic process with allusions to French New Wave cinema and German Expressionism. Rumble Fish features an experimental score by Stewart Copeland, drummer of the musical group The Police, who used a Musync, a new device at the time.

Rumble Fish was booed when it debuted at the New York Film Festival. It took part in the San Sebastian International Film Festival, where it won the International Critics’ Big Award. It went on to gross only $2.5 million domestically, well below its estimated $10 million budget. Most mainstream reviewers reacted negatively to Coppola’s film, criticizing its overt style and lack of characterization.

[edit] Development

Francis Ford Coppola was drawn to S.E. Hinton’s novel Rumble Fish because of the strong personal identification he had with the subject matter – a younger brother who hero-worships an older, intellectually superior brother, which mirrored the one between Coppola and his brother, August.[1] A dedication to August appears as the film’s final end credit. The director said that he “started to use Rumble Fish as my carrot for what I promised myself when I finished The Outsiders“.[2] Halfway through the production of The Outsiders, Coppola decided that he wanted to retain the same production team, stay in Tulsa, and shoot Rumble Fish right after The Outsiders. He wrote the screenplay for Rumble Fish with Hinton on Sundays, their day off from shooting The Outsiders.[1]

[edit] Pre-production

Warner Brothers was not happy with an early cut of The Outsiders and passed on distributing Rumble Fish.[3] Despite the lack of financing in place, Coppola completely recorded the film on video during two weeks of rehearsals in a former school gymnasium and afterwards was able to show the cast and crew a rough draft of the film.[4] To get Rourke into the mindset of his character, Coppola gave him books written by Albert Camus and a biography of Napoleon.[5] The Motorcycle Boy’s look was patterned after Camus complete with trademark cigarette dangling out of the corner of his mouth – taken from a photograph of the author that Rourke used as a visual handle.[6] Rourke remembers that he approached his character as “an actor who no longer finds his work interesting”.[3]

Coppola hired Michael Smuin, a choreographer and co-director of the San Francisco Ballet, to stage the fight scene between Rusty-James and Biff Wilcox because he liked the way he choreographed violence.[4] He asked Smuin to include specific visual elements: a motorcycle, broken glass, knives, gushing water and blood. The choreographer spent a week designing the sequence. Smuin also staged the street dance between Rourke and Diana Scarwid, modeling it after one in Picnic featuring William Holden and Kim Novak.[4]

Before filming started, Coppola ran regular screenings of old films during the evenings to familiarize the cast and in particular, the crew with his visual concept for Rumble Fish.[4] Most notably, Coppola showed Anatole Litvak‘s Decision Before Dawn, the inspiration for the film’s smoky look, F.W. Murnau’s The Last Laugh to show Matt Dillon how silent actor Emil Jennings used body language to convey emotions, and Robert Wiene‘s The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, which became Rumble Fish’s “stylistic prototype”.[4] Coppola’s extensive use of shadows, oblique angles, exaggerated compositions, and an abundance of smoke and fog are all hallmarks of these German Expressionist films. Godfrey Reggio‘s Koyaanisqatsi, shot mainly in time-lapse photography, motivated Coppola to use this technique to animate the sky in his own film.[4]

[edit] Principal photography

Six weeks into production, Coppola made a deal with Universal Pictures and principal photography began on July 12, 1982 with the director declaring, “Rumble Fish will be to The Outsiders what Apocalypse Now was to The Godfather.[6] He shot in deserted areas at the edge of Tulsa with many scenes captured via a hand-held camera in order to make the audience feel uneasy. He also had shadows painted on the walls of the sets to make them look ominous.[7] In the dream sequence where Rusty-James floats outside of his body Matt Dillon wore a body mold which was moved by an articulated arm and also flown on wires.[8]

To mix the black and white footage of Rusty-James and the Motorcycle Boy in the pet store looking at the Siamese fighting fish in color, Burum shot the actors in black and white and then projected that footage on a rear projection screen. They put the fish tank in front of it with the tropical fish and shot it all with color film.[9] Filming finished by mid-September 1982, on schedule and on budget.[7]

The film is notable for its avant-garde style, shot on stark high-contrast black-and-white film, using the spherical cinematographic process with allusions to French New Wave cinema. The striking black and white photography of the film’s cinematographer, Stephen H. Burum, lies in two main sources: the films of Orson Welles and German cinema of the 1920s.[10] When the film was in its pre-production phase, Coppola asked Burum how he wanted to film it and they agreed that it might be the only chance they were ever going to have to make a black-and-white film.[

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rumble_Fish

 

 

Francis Ford Coppola (born April 7, 1939) is an Italian-American film director, producer and screenwriter. Away from showbusiness, Coppola is also a vintner, magazine publisher and hotelier. He is a graduate of Hofstra University where he studied theatre. He earned an M.F.A. in film directing from the UCLA Film School. He is most renowned for directing the Godfather films, The Conversation and Apocalypse Now.

1980s

[edit] Napoléon restoration and One from the Heart

Main article: Napoléon restorations

Despite the setbacks during the making of Apocalypse Now, Coppola kept up with film projects, presenting in 1981 a restoration by the British film historian Kevin Brownlow of the celebrated 1927 Abel Gance film Napoléon that was released in the United States by American Zoetrope. Coppola’s father scored a soundtrack for this cut of the film. However, more of the film has since been found and incorporated by Brownlow, and Carmine Coppola’s soundtrack is written to match the film at a different frame speed from that at which Gance shot it. Coppola’s insistence on his father’s score (others do exist), and his claim to have worldwide rights on showings of the film (he purchased some rights from Claude Lelouch who in turn had purchased them from a penniless Gance), mean that this film is not presently screened, and its fullest form is unavailable on DVD.

Coppola returned to directing with the experimental musical One from the Heart (1982). The film was a financial failure.

[edit] Hammett

Main article: Hammett (film)

Hammett is a 1982 homage to noir films and pulp fiction directed by Wim Wenders and completed by Francis Ford Coppola. The film is a fictionalized story about writer Dashiell Hammett, based on the novel of the same name by Joe Gores. German director Wenders was hired by Coppola to direct this film, which was to be his American debut feature. But by the time the final version was released in 1982, only 30 percent of Wenders’ footage remained, and the rest had been completely reshot by Coppola.[7] Wenders made a short film called Reverse Angle documenting his disputes with Coppola surrounding the making of Hammett.

[edit] The Outsiders

Main article: The Outsiders

In 1982, he directed The Outsiders, a film adaptation of the novel of the same name by S. E. Hinton. Coppola credited his inspiration for making the film to a suggestion from middle school students who had read the novel. The Outsiders is notable for being the breakout film for a number of young actors who would go on to become major stars. These included major roles for Matt Dillon, Ralph Macchio, and C. Thomas Howell. Others rising stars in the cast include Patrick Swayze, Rob Lowe, Emilio Estevez, Diane Lane, and Tom Cruise. Matt Dillon and several others also starred in Coppola’s related film, Rumble Fish, which was also based on a S.E. Hinton novel and filmed at the same time as The Outsiders on-location in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Carmine Coppola wrote and edited the musical score, including the title song “Stay Gold”, which was based upon a famous Robert Frost poem and performed for the movie by Stevie Wonder.

[edit] The Cotton Club

In 1984 Coppola directed The Cotton Club. The film was produced by Robert Evans. It was a box-office failure, with a budget of $45 million and a gross revenue of only $25 million. Despite performing poorly at the box office, the film was nominated for several awards, including Golden Globes for Best Director and Best Picture (Drama) and the Oscar for best Film Editing.

[edit] Gardens of Stone and Tucker: The Man and His Dream

In 1987 Coppola reteamed with James Caan for Gardens of Stone but the film was overshadowed by the death of Coppola’s eldest son Gian-Carlo Coppola during the film’s production. Also in 1987 he directed an episode of Rip Van Winkle.

He followed this with Tucker: The Man and His Dream, a biopic based on the life of Preston Tucker and his attempt to produce and market the Tucker ’48. Coppola had originally conceived the project as a musical with Marlon Brando in the lead role as his next project after the release of The Godfather Part II. Now, with Jeff Bridges in the role of Preston Tucker, the film received positive reviews, earning three nominations at the 62nd Academy Awards.

[edit] New York Stories

In 1989 Coppola teamed up with fellow Oscar-winning directors Martin Scorsese and Woody Allen for an anthology film called New York Stories. Coppola directed the Life without Zoe segment starring his sister Talia Shire, and also co-wrote the film with his daughter Sofia Coppola. Life Without Zoe was mostly panned by critics and was generally considered the segment that brought the film’s overall quality down.

[edit] 1990s

[edit] The Godfather Part III

In 1990, he released the third and final chapter of The Godfather series with The Godfather Part III. Coppola successfully managed to get Al Pacino, Diane Keaton, and Talia Shire to return to the franchise, but Robert Duvall refused to reprise his role as Tom Hagen over salary disagreements. While not as critically acclaimed as the first two films, it was still a box office success. Some reviewers criticized the casting of Coppola’s daughter Sofia, who stepped into a role abandoned by Winona Ryder just as filming began. Despite this, The Godfather Part III went off to gather 7 Academy Award nominations, including Best Director and Best Picture for Coppola himself. The film failed to win any of these awards, the only film in the trilogy to do so.

[edit] Dracula, Frankenstein and recent films

In 1992, Coppola released Bram Stoker’s Dracula, an adaptation of Stoker’s novel which tried to follow Stoker’s novel more closely than previous film adaptations, although its closeness to the book is often debated. Coppola cast Gary Oldman in the film’s title role, along with Winona Ryder and Anthony Hopkins. The movie’s box office success enabled Coppola to keep his vineyard. The film won Academy Awards for Costume Design, Makeup, and Sound Editing. Two years later Coppola produced, but did not direct an adaptation of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, which featured Kenneth Branagh (who also directed the film) in the title role and Robert De Niro as the monster.

Coppola would only make two more films in the 1990s: Jack, starring Robin Williams in 1996, and The Rainmaker, an ensemble courtroom drama in 1997. His next project would not be for another 10 years.

Youth Without Youth was released on December 14, 2007. It was made for about $19 million, and was given a limited release. As a result, Coppola announced his plans to produce his own films in order to avoid the marketing input that goes into most films (making them appeal to too-wide an audience).

His most recent film, Tetro, was shot in Buenos Aires and was released in select cinemas in June 2009.

Meanwhile, for years, he has tried to make a movie called Megalopolis, a film about an architect in a futuristic New York who tries to create utopia through architecture.

[edit] Zoetrope: All Story

In 1997, Coppola founded Zoetrope: All-Story, a literary magazine devoted to short stories and design. The magazine publishes fiction by emerging writers alongside more recognizable names, such as Woody Allen, Margaret Atwood, Haruki Murakami, Alice Munro, Don DeLillo, Mary Gaitskill, and Edward Albee; as well as essays, including ones from Mario Vargas Llosa, David Mamet, Steven Spielberg, and Salman Rushdie. Each issue is designed, in its entirety, by a prominent artist, one usually working outside his / her expected field. Previous guest designers include Gus Van Sant, Tom Waits, Laurie Anderson, Marjane Satrapi, Guillermo del Toro, David Bowie, David Byrne, and Dennis Hopper. Coppola serves as founding editor and publisher of All-Story.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Ford_Coppola

 

 

Ernst Ingmar Bergman ([ˈɪŋmar ˈbærjman]  ( listen); 14 July 1918 – 30 July 2007) was a Swedish director, writer and producer for film, stage and television. His influential body of work often dealt with themes such as bleakness and despair, as well as comedy and hope, in his cinematic exploration of the human condition. Described by Woody Allen as “probably the greatest film artist, all things considered, since the invention of the motion picture camera”, he is recognized as one of the most accomplished and influential film-makers of modern cinema.[1]

He directed sixty-two films, most of which he also wrote, and directed over one hundred and seventy plays. Among his company of actors were Liv Ullmann, Bibi Andersson and Max von Sydow. Most of his films were set in the landscape of Sweden, his major themes being death, illness, betrayal and insanity.

Bergman was active for more than six decades, but his career was seriously threatened in 1976 when he suspended a number of pending productions, closed his studios, and went into self-imposed exile in Germany for eight years following a botched criminal investigation for alleged income tax evasion.

[edit] Film work

Bergman’s film career began in 1941 with his rewriting of scripts, but his first major accomplishment was in 1944 when he wrote the screenplay for Torment/Frenzy (Hets), a film directed by Alf Sjöberg. Along with writing the screenplay, he was also given position as assistant director to the film. In his second autobiographical work Images: My Life in Film, Bergman describes the filming of the exteriors as his actual film directorial debut.[8] The international success of this film led to Bergman’s first opportunity to direct a year later. During the next ten years, he wrote and directed more than a dozen films including The Devil’s Wanton/Prison (Fängelse) in 1949 and The Naked Night/Sawdust and Tinsel (Gycklarnas afton) and Summer with Monika (Sommaren med Monika), both from 1953.

Bergman first achieved worldwide success with Smiles of a Summer Night (Sommarnattens leende) (1955), which won for “Best poetic humor” and was nominated for the Palme d’Or at Cannes the following year. This was followed by The Seventh Seal (Det sjunde inseglet) and Wild Strawberries (Smultronstället), released in Sweden ten months apart in 1957. The Seventh Seal won a special jury prize and was nominated for the Palme d’Or at Cannes and Wild Strawberries won numerous awards for Bergman and its star, Victor Sjöström.

Bergman continued to be productive for the next two decades. From the early 1960s, Bergman lived much of his life on the island of Fårö, Gotland, Sweden, where he made several of his films.

In the early 1960s he directed a trilogy that explored the theme of faith and doubt in God, Through a Glass Darkly (Såsom i en Spegel – 1961), Winter Light (Nattvardsgästerna – 1962), and The Silence (Tystnaden – 1963). In 1966, he directed Persona, a film that he himself considered one of his most important works. While the shockingly experimental film won few awards many consider it his masterpiece. Other notable films of the period include The Virgin Spring (Jungfrukällan – 1960), Hour of the Wolf (Vargtimmen – 1968), Shame (Skammen – 1968) and A Passion/The Passion of Anna (En Passion – 1969). Bergman also produced extensively for Swedish television at this time. Two works of note were Scenes from a Marriage (Scener ur ett äktenskap – 1973) and The Magic Flute (Trollflöjten – 1975).

After his arrest in 1976 for tax evasion, Bergman swore he would never again make films in Sweden. He shut his film studio on the island of Fårö down and went into exile. He briefly considered the possibility of working in America and his next film, The Serpent’s Egg (1977) was a German-U.S. production and his second English-language film (the first being 1971’s “The Touch“). This was followed a year later with a British-Norwegian coproduction of Autumn Sonata (Höstsonaten – 1978). The film starred Ingrid Bergman and was the one notable film of this period. The one other film he directed was From the Life of the Marionettes (Aus dem Leben der Marionetten – 1980) a British-German coproduction.

In 1982, he temporarily returned to his homeland to direct Fanny and Alexander (Fanny och Alexander), a film that, unlike his previous productions, was aimed at a broader audience, but was also criticized within the profession for being shallow and commercial.[9] Bergman stated that the film would be his last, and that afterwards he would focus on directing theatre. Since then, he wrote several film scripts and directed a number of television specials. As with previous work for TV some of these productions were later released in theatres. The last such work was Saraband (2003), a sequel to Scenes from a Marriage and directed by Bergman when he was eighty-four years old.

[edit] Repertory company

Bergman developed a personal “repertory company” of Swedish actors whom he repeatedly cast in his films, including Max von Sydow, Bibi Andersson, Harriet Andersson, Erland Josephson, Ingrid Thulin, and Gunnar Björnstrand, each of whom appeared in at least five Bergman features. Norwegian actress Liv Ullmann, who appeared in nine of Bergman’s films and one televisual movie (Saraband), was the last to join this group (in the 1966 film Persona), and ultimately became most closely associated with Bergman, both artistically and personally. They had a daughter together, Linn Ullmann (b. 1966).

Ingmar Bergman with his long time cinematographer Sven Nykvist during the production of Through a Glass Darkly (1960)

A great number of Bergman’s interior scenes were filmed at the Filmstaden studios north of Stockholm.

Bergman began working with Sven Nykvist, his cinematographer, in 1953. The two of them developed and maintained a working relationship of sufficient rapport to allow Bergman not to worry about the composition of a shot until the day before it was filmed. On the morning of the shoot, he would briefly speak to Nykvist about the mood and composition he hoped for, and then leave Nykvist to work lacking interruption or comment until postproduction discussion of the next day’s work.

[edit] Financing

By Bergman’s own account, he never had a problem with funding. He cited two reasons for this: one, that he did not live in the United States, which he viewed as obsessed with box-office earnings; and two, that his films tended to be low-budget affairs.[citation needed] (Cries and Whispers, for instance, was finished for about $450,000, while Scenes from a Marriage — a six-episode television feature — cost only $200,000.)[citation needed]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ingmar_bergman